Internal displacement in Ethiopia a scoping review of its causes, trends and consequences

This article sought to examine the scope, range, and nature of evidence on major drivers and socio-economic and psychological impacts of internal displacement in Ethiopia. A scoping review of the literature was conducted. A total of 9 databases and 8 other sources were searched from February to June 2021, yielding 3479 articles after duplicates were eliminated. The researcher selected and reviewed 36 articles that met inclusion criteria. The findings reveal that conflict-induced displacement is the primary driver followed by climate-induced displacement and other factors causing displacement (such as development projects, severe wind, and social tensions).

Findings on the impact of internal displacement show degradation in the livelihood and housing conditions; socio-cultural confusion; loss of identity and family disintegration; limited access to basic services such as food, water, housing, health care and basic education; loss of access to farmland, pastures, forest lands; impoverishment risks, joblessness, social disarticulation; trauma, marginalization, and discrimination. Findings provide insight into the complex array of driving factors causing people to be internally displaced in Ethiopia and their associated impact on IDPs. The key observation is that there is limited literature on the causes, trends and impacts of internal displacement in Ethiopia though several studies have focused on internal displacement and refugees in the Africa. Further, intervention studies are needed to shed light on approaches to investigate the root causes and improve the wellbeing of internally displaced persons.

Keywords: Causes, climate, conflict, Ethiopia, IDPs, impacts, internal displacement, resettlement and relocation

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